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2.4.6 Long toe flexor muscles

TRANSCRIPT

(2.38)

Now we’ll look at the muscles which flex the toes. First we’ll look at the two long flexors, flexor hallucis longus, and flexor digitorum longus. They’re the other two muscles that we left out of the picture in the last section.

Here’s flexor hallucis longus. Flexor hallucis longus arises from here on the back of the fibula. Medial to flexor hallucis longus is flexor digitorum longus. Flexor digitorum longus arises from here on the back of the tibia. This gap is for the tendon of tibialis posterior.

The relative position of these two muscles, this one for the big toe, this one for the four small toes, is the reverse of what you’d expect when you look at where they’re going. As we’ll see, their two tendons cross over just below the ankle.

To complete our picture of the deep posterior leg muscles, we’ll add the third one, tibialis posterior to the picture. We saw it in the last section. It’s the most deeply placed of the three muscles. Tibialis posterior, crosses beneath flexor digitorum longus, and emerges in front of it, just above the ankle.

At the ankle, here are flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, and tibialis posterior, each passing beneath the flexor retinaculum in its own fibrous tunnel. Emerging below the retinaculum, the two long toe flexors cross over, flexor hallucis longus lying deeper.

The tendon of flexor hallucis longus passes forwards, and enters the fibrous flexor tendon sheath of the big toe. The two sesamoid bones lie on each side of it, here and here, as it passes beneath the MP joint. Flexor hallucis longus is inserted here, on the base of the distal phalanx of the big toe. Flexor digitorum longus divides into four tendons, one for each of the small toes. These pass ...

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(2.38)

Now we’ll look at the muscles which flex the toes. First we’ll look at the two long flexors, flexor hallucis longus, and flexor digitorum longus. They’re the other two muscles that we left out of the picture in the last section.

Here’s flexor hallucis longus. Flexor hallucis longus arises from here on the back of the fibula. Medial to flexor hallucis longus is flexor digitorum longus. Flexor digitorum longus arises from here on the back of the tibia. This gap is for the tendon of tibialis posterior.

The relative position of these two muscles, this one for the big toe, this one for the four small toes, is the reverse of what you’d expect when you look at where they’re going. As we’ll see, their two tendons cross over just below the ankle.

To complete our picture of the deep posterior leg muscles, we’ll add the third one, tibialis posterior to the picture. We saw it in the last section. It’s the most deeply placed of the three muscles. Tibialis posterior, crosses beneath flexor digitorum longus, and emerges in front of it, just above the ankle.

At the ankle, here are flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, and tibialis posterior, each passing beneath the flexor retinaculum in its own fibrous tunnel. Emerging below the retinaculum, the two long toe flexors cross over, flexor hallucis longus lying deeper.

The tendon of flexor hallucis longus passes forwards, and enters the fibrous flexor tendon sheath of the big toe. The two sesamoid bones lie on each side of it, here and here, as it passes beneath the MP joint. Flexor hallucis longus is inserted here, on the base of the distal phalanx of the big toe. Flexor digitorum longus divides into four tendons, one for each of the small toes. These pass along the flexor tendon sheaths, and insert here on the distal phalanges. Here’s the action of flexor hallucis longus, here’s the action of flexor digitorum longus.

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